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Published Date16 Mar 2018
Last Updated21 Nov 2018

Abdominal paracentesis is a medical procedure where the abdominal cavity is punctured to obtain fluid for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.

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Published Date15 Mar 2018
Last Updated21 Nov 2018

All humans have diverse sex traits which are initially ambiguous in utero. For some humans, variations of natural ambiguity continue (whether related to chromosomal, hormonal or anatomical diversities). Ambiguous genitalia occur in approximately... Read more...

Published Date22 Nov 2018
Last Updated06 Dec 2018
Assessment, diagnosis and management of women presenting with antepartum haemorrhage... Read more...
Published Date01 Jun 2018
Last Updated21 Nov 2018

Apnoea is defined as no effective respiratory effort for ≥ 20 seconds or for > 10 seconds if associated with bradycardia (< 100 bpm), oxygen desaturation, cyanosis or pallor. Apnoea may be classified as one of the following:

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Published Date02 Nov 2018
Last Updated06 Dec 2018

Birth after caesarean section

  • Elective repeat caesarean (ERC) and trial of labour after caesarean (TOLAC) have risks and benefits.
  • Up to 58 per cent of women with a previous caesarean section... Read more...
Published Date16 Oct 2015
Last Updated21 Nov 2018

Neonates are susceptible to bleeding for various reasons. Take a detailed history, physical examination and determine whether the neonate is 'well' or 'sick'. Reasons for bleeding in neonates include:

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Published Date15 Mar 2018
Last Updated21 Nov 2018

Blood gases are helpful to determine the adequacy of respiratory function (oxygenation and ventilation) as well as the baby's acid-base balance.

Blood gases can be taken from the following sites:

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Published Date16 Mar 2018
Last Updated21 Nov 2018

Blood pressure disorders encountered in neonates, monitoring of blood pressure and normal ranges.

The recognition and treatment of hypotension is particularly important to avoid complications such as cerebral ischaemic... Read more...

Published Date14 Mar 2018
Last Updated21 Nov 2018

Bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency for newborns. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment usually results in positive outcomes. Delay in carrying out surgery may result in the loss of large amounts of bowel.

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Published Date15 Mar 2018
Last Updated21 Nov 2018

The many benefits of breastfeeding and breast milk are well known. Breast milk is a unique 'living' fluid. It contains:

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